The efficacy of the Graston technique instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization in the reduction of scar tissue in the management of chronic ankle instability syndrome following an ankle inversion sprain
According to research, continuing symptoms of pain, instability, crepitus, weakness, stiffness (Pellow and Brantingham, 2001) and swelling (Patel and Warren, 1999:332) commonly follow an acute ankle sprain. The cause of these symptoms is often attributed to the development of a tight sensitive scar (Reid, 1992:251) within the injured ligament. The treatment options available include scar tissue debridement (Bassewitz and Shapiro, 1997), manipulation (Edmond, 1993:164), mobilization, (Hockenbury and Sammarco, 2001) and ultrasound (Thomson, Skinner & Piercy, 1991:43-44). Transverse friction massage could also be used to reduce adhesions (Kessler, 1990:85) and improve mobility of the tissues (Kessler, 1990:140). The Graston Technique Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (GTIASTM) comprises a set of stainless steel instruments (Carey 2003:2) designed to detect and reduce scar tissue and adhesions (Carey 2003:7) by bringing about an area of controlled microtrauma (Hammer, 2003(b):1) and inflammation (Carey 2003:32) through a mechanism similar to that of friction massage.