The efficacy of the Graston technique instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization in the reduction of scar tissue in the management of chronic ankle instability syndrome following an ankle inversion sprain
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According to research, continuing symptoms of pain, instability, crepitus, weakness, stiffness (Pellow and Brantingham, 2001) and swelling (Patel and Warren, 1999:332) commonly follow an acute ankle sprain. The cause of these symptoms is often attributed to the development of a tight sensitive scar (Reid, 1992:251) within the injured ligament. The treatment options available include scar tissue debridement (Bassewitz and Shapiro, 1997), manipulation (Edmond, 1993:164), mobilization, (Hockenbury and Sammarco, 2001) and ultrasound (Thomson, Skinner & Piercy, 1991:43-44). Transverse friction massage could also be used to reduce adhesions (Kessler, 1990:85) and improve mobility of the tissues (Kessler, 1990:140). The Graston Technique Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (GTIASTM) comprises a set of stainless steel instruments (Carey 2003:2) designed to detect and reduce scar tissue and adhesions (Carey 2003:7) by bringing about an area of controlled microtrauma (Hammer, 2003(b):1) and inflammation (Carey 2003:32) through a mechanism similar to that of friction massage.