The role of and relationship between hamstring and quadriceps muscle myofascial trigger points in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome
Smith, Karen Louise Frandsen
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Purpose: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is a common condition in all age groups, with a multifactorial etiology. This study aimed to investigate the association between the Quadriceps femoris muscle group, Hamstring muscle group and Adductor muscle group, and to establish the relationship between myofascial trigger points (MFTP’s) in these muscle groups and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, quantitative non-intervention clinical assessment study was conducted at the Chiropractic Day Clinic at Durban University of Technology (DUT), to determine the extent of the PFPS, the MFTPs and thus the relationship between the two. The study included eighty patients with PFPS, who were recruited by convenience sampling. The results were captured using Microsoft excel and SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Quadriceps femoris muscle group MFTPs were noted in 92.5% of the patients (most prevalent being Vastus medialis TP1 (63.8%), Vastus lateralis TP1 (33.8%) and Vastus intermedius at 27,5%). Least common was Vastus lateralis TP2 only presenting in 2,5% of the patients. Hamstring muscle group MFTPs were found overall in 86.3% of patients (most prevalent being in Biceps femoris muscle (66%), and least prevalent being in Semitendinosus muscle (11,3%)). MFTPs were present in 64% overall of the Adductor muscle group (Adductor magnus muscle being the most common). Significant associations were made between the presence of MFTPs in the Vastus lateralis TP2 (p=0.00), Vastus medialis TP1 (p=0.046; 0.005; 0.004), the NRS and the PPSS. Also significant was the relationship between the NRS, PPSS and the Semimembranosus and Adductor magnus muscles indicated that these muscles were the most likely causes of pain even though they had fewer MFTPs than other comparable muscles. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study supports previous research indicating that an extensor dysfunction of the Quadriceps femoris muscle group may be of MFTP origin and indicates that other muscles in the thigh require further research indicating their role in the development of PFPS.