Sand water storage : unconventional methods to freshwater augmentation in isolated rural communities of South Africa
Otieno, Fredrick Alfred O.
Olufayo, O. A.
Ochieng, George M.
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South Africa water resources are scarce in global terms with mean annual rainfall of about half world average of 860 mm a year. On the other hand, current economy development with resulting contamination of available water resources will further reduce water availability, if present patterns of water use continue unchanged. The conventional water resources (largely surface water) in the country have been fully exploited with little opportunity for further expansion. So therefore, new approaches are necessary by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers in forming additional water resources in this part of semi-arid region. High evaporative losses from surface storage, increasing costs of large dams and aridity conditions have hindered development of conventional water resources with increasing interest in using groundwater for rural water supply. Many South Africa rivers are non-perennial, therefore, development of unconventional sand water storage is appealing for freshwater augmentation in isolated rural communities. This paper presents overviews of South Africa water resources highlighting sand water storage options for potential application in rural water supply for isolated communities where groundwater potential is low.