Groundwater : characteristics, qualities, pollutions and treatments : an overview
Otieno, Fredrick Alfred O.
Olumuyiwa, I. Ojo
Ochieng, George M.
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This review considered groundwater resources, its characteristics, qualities, pollutions and available treatments. Groundwater refers to all the water occupying the voids, pores and fissures within geological formations, which originated from atmospheric precipitation either directly by rainfall infiltration or indirectly from rivers, lakes or canals. The chemical, physical and bacterial characteristics of groundwater determine its usefulness for various purposes. The ground water analysis reviewed includes pH, chlorine content, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, dissolved oxygen and hardness others include alkalinity, chloride, toxic chemicals and the presence of coli form organisms. The treatments considered are; aeration, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Appropriate technology methods such as container storage, pot chlorination, boiling and solar disinfection were discovered to be in use. The paper concluded by recommending research into quantifying groundwater, its quality and treatment based on the above overview.