A prospective pilot investigation of the Zulu translation of the CMCC Neck Disability Index Questionnaire and Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire with respect to its concurrent validity when compared to their English counterparts
Neck pain is a common problem, globally, as well as in South Africa. Zulu is the first language of a very large proportion of the South African population, and as such, addressing the needs of this population group with respect to neck pain is a priority. Many reliable pain indexes exist in English to record the degree of disability with regards to neck pain. These are invaluable tools in aiding the health practitioner to assess the progress of treatment and the severity of the patient's disability. Two of the most credible and frequently used indexes are the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College Neck Disability Index (CMCC NDl) and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ). However, no such scale exists in Zulu. The purpose of this pilot investigation was, firstly, to analyze and critique the Zulu translations of the CMCC NDl and the SFMPQ in order to establish their face validity. Secondly, to establish their concurrent validity ensuring that the translated questionnaires are specific and sensitive enough to use as tools in data collection when compared to their English counterparts. Thirdly, to make recommendations for further improvement in terms of the Zulu questionnaires and lastly, to make recommendations for further studies for improvement in terms of the use of these questionnaires as research tools amongst the Zulu speaking population of South Africa. Firstly, the CMCC NDl and the SFMP questionnaires were translated into Zulu by means of a focus group. These versions were then assessed by means of a focus (or discussion) group, to assess their face validity. Changes were made to the original translations according to the recommendations of this group. These versions were then assessed with regards to their concurrent validity with the original English versions. Fifty volunteers, who were literate in both English and Zulu and who have suffered with neck pain, filled in both the Zulu and English versions of both questionnaires.