The relative effectiveness of periosteal pecking combined with therapeutic ultrasound compared to therapeutic ultrasound in the treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome type II
Robertson, Moira Eleanora
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Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Type II (MTSS), otherwise known as shin splints, accounts for approximately 13% of injuries in American runners. Van Mechelen (1992) reported that 37-57% of recreational runners experience an injury over the course of a year, from which 54-75% of all injuries are caused by overuse. The American Medical Association defines shin splints as “pain and discomfort in the leg from repetitive activity on hard surfaces, or due to forceful, excessive use of foot flexors. The diagnosis should be limited to musculoskeletal inflammations excluding stress fractures and ischemic disorders.” (Thacker et al., 2002) Treatment protocols vary from biomechanical interventions (orthotics), to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and modalities such as ultrasound all with varying degrees of success (Noakes, 2001). Apart from therapeutic interventions it is the overriding symptom of pain, which patients are left with (Noakes, 2001). A therapeutic intervention called periosteal pecking has received increased interest with regards to symptomatic treatment of shin splints. Periosteal pecking is a form of *dry needling in which the tip of the needle contacts the periosteum (Raso,1997). The aim of this study is to establish the effect of periosteal pecking in the clinical setting with and against that of an established intervention, namely therapeutic ultrasound.