Nutritional, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of a pearl millet-based instant beverage powder
Obilana, Anthony Olusegun
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A pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) based instant beverage powder (PMIBP) was prepared from two different varieties of pearl millet (Agrigreen (AgG) and Babala (Ba)) by a combination of malting and extrusion cooking. The millet grains were germinated (30oC and 98% RH for 36 h), kilned (50oC for 48 h), cooled to room temperature, ground and stored in a chiller at 5oC until used. The raw and malted pearl millet grains were extruded under different parameters to accommodate the types of pre-treatment applied to the pearl millets. Combination processing of the pearl millet grain was achieved by extrusion of malted pearl millet of both varieties individually, and as a mixture of raw and malted pearl millet (50:50). The effect of the processing methods on the physical, functional, nutritional and biochemical properties of the raw and processed pearl millets varieties were evaluated. Combination processing led to a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in total fat and total dietary fibre (TDF) (3.85 and 22.99 g/100 g, respectively) content of AgriGreen (AgG) extruded malted pearl millet (EMPM); a decrease in TDF (18.12 g/100 g) content of AgG extruded raw pearl millet-malted pearl millet mix (ERPMMPM). Combination processing led to a decrease in ash, total fat, total dietary fibre, Fe and Zn (1.76, 3.48, 14.26 g/100 g, 7.78 and 4.74 mg/100 g, respectively) content of Babala (Ba) EMPM. It also led to a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in ash, total fat, TDF, Fe and Zn (1.88, 4.22, 21.71 g/100 g, 7.24 and 4.14 mg/100 g, respectively) content of Ba ERPMMPM. Regardless of the pearl millet variety, malting led to a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in moisture, total, saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fats, total dietary fibre iron, zinc and protein digestibility; a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in total carbohydrates, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity (TEAC) and water solubility index. Extrusion however, led to a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in total dietary fibre, zinc, total phenolic content and protein digestibility; a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in ash, total, saturated and monounsaturated fats, total carbohydrates, iron, starch digestibility water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI). The beverages of 10% total solids (8% pearl millet + 2% sugar for taste) prepared from the processed pearl millet were offered to an untrained consumer panel consisting of students and staff of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, under similar sets of conditions in a sensory evaluation room at the Food Technology Department. The following characteristics of the products were rated and scored on a 9-point hedonic scale (1 – like extremely and 9 – dislike extremely): appearance, colour, aroma, flavour, mouth-feel and overall acceptability. In general, Ba RPM was rated 4 - like slightly, and AgG malted pearl millet (MPM) was rated 6 - dislike slightly and all other pearl millet samples from both varieties were rated 5 - neither like nor dislike.