Radio and satellite tracking and detecting systems for maritime applications
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The work described in this thesis summarizes the author’s contributions to the design, development and testing of embedded solutions for maritime Radio and Satellite tracking and detecting systems. In order to provide reliable tracking and detecting facilities of ships have to be integrated Convectional Maritime Radio Communications (CMRC) and Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC) systems. On the other hand, Global Mobile Satellite Communications (GMSC) as a part of Global Communication Satellite Systems (GCSS) has to be integrated with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) of the US GPS or Russian GLONASS systems. The proposed local maritime Radio VHF Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) systems and devices, such as Radio Automatic Identification System (R-AIS) or VHF Data Link (VDL), Radio Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (RADS-B) and GNSS Augmentation VDL-Broadcast (GAVDL-B) are introduced. The new technology deigns of global Satellite CNS maritime equipment and systems, such as Global Ship Tracking (GST) as enhanced Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT), Satellite AIS (S-AIS), Satellite Data Link (SDL), Satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (SADS-B) and GNSS Augmentation SDL (GASDL) are discussed and benefits of these new technologies and solution for improved Ship Traffic Control (STC) and Management (STM) are explored. The regional maritime CNS solutions via Stratospheric Communication Platforms (SCP), tracking of ships at sea via Space Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) or Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR)and Ground Synthetic Aperture Radar (GSAR) are described. The special tracking systems for collision avoidance with enhanced safety and security at sea including solutions of captured ships by pirates through aids of the MMSC, SCP and Radars are introduced and the testing methodologies employed to qualify embedded hardware for this environment are presented. During the voyage of the ship in good weather conditions and when navigation devices on the bridge are in order, then can be used very well AIS, LRIT, anti-collision Radar and other on-board equipment. However, at very bad weather conditions sometimes surveillance Radar and Radio HF Transceiver cannot work, but may work only GPS Receiver and L/C-band Satellite Transceiver, while Radio VHF Transceiver will have extremely reduced coverage, what is not enough for safe navigation and collision avoidance. Therefore, during those critical circumstances, when the safety of navigations very important, it will be not necessary to ask "Where am I", but "Where are nearby ships around me"? At this point, it should be needed the newest techniques and equipment for enhanced STC and STM, such as GST, S-AIS, SDL, SADS-B and GASDL. Terrorists exploit surprise in successful pirate actions worldwide and security forces are generally unaware of the source of these attacks at sea. In today’s information age, terror threats may originate with transnational organizations or exploit the territory of failed, weak or neutral states. Thus, countering piracy by eliminating the terrorists on land is the best solution, however, it might not be feasible and even though it’s successful could require many years. In the thesis, the general overview of Radio and Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) for ship communication and tracking systems is conducted as well, including the space platform and orbital mechanics, horizon and geographic satellite coordinates and classification of spacecraft by Geostationary Earth Orbits (GEO) and Non-GEO orbits.