The chemical composition of leaf essential oils of Psidium guajava L. (white and pink fruit forms) from South Africa
Chalannavar, Raju K.
Venugopala, Katharigatta Narayanaswamy
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The leaf oils of Psidium guajava (white fruit) and Psidium guajava (pink fruit) collected in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been examined by Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the apparent concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. A total of twenty compounds of 88.9 % from white fruit and forty eight compounds representing 97.5 % from pink fruit of the oils were identified. P. guajava (white fruit) produced oil that was much richer in hydrocarbons (38.8 %), sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (24.0 %), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (19.1 %) and alcohol (6.8 %). The major constituents of the essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (14.0 %), caryophyllene (13.9 %), 1H-cycloprop[e]azulene (11.6 %), adamantane (9.4 %), 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol (6.8 %), α-cubebene (6.7 %), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (3.9 %), β-humulene (3.5 %), 1,2,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydronaphthalene (3.2 %) and α-caryophyllene (3.0 %). The leaf oil of P. guajava (pink fruit) contained a mixture of hydrocarbons (30.5 %), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25.4 %), alcohol (24.4 %) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.0 %). The major constituents of the essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (13.0 %), tetracyclo[18.104.22.168(2,5).0(1,8)]tridecan-9-ol (12.9 %), caryophyllene (9.5 %), 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol (9.5 %), 1H-cycloprop[e]azulene (8.1 %), Z-3-hexadecen-7-yne (4.6 %) and eudesma-4(14),11-diene (4.1 %). High concentration of caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene in both the oils suggests its usefulness as natural preservatives in the food industry. The terpenic and ester compounds could contribute to the unique flavor of P. guajava leaves.
Chalannavar, R.K.; Venugopala, K.N.; Baijnath, H. & Odhav, B. 2014. The chemical composition of leaf essential oils of Psidium guajava L. (white and pink fruit forms) from South Africa, Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 17:6, 1293-1302