Community-based tourism in rich and poor countries : towards a framework for comparison
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This article is conceptual based on a perusal of academic journal articles and books on matters related to Community-based Tourism (CBT). It contends that CBT is a very important tool for local economic development, community development, empowerment and the attainment of social justice. It observes disparities between rich and poor countries in terms of endowments and how the multiple dimensions of poverty can confound how tourism can be experienced in different contexts. It posits an eight Es model which represents the fundamental pillars upon which to judge a CBT for purposes of support, monitoring and evaluation. The eight E are Endogenous (emphasising a reliance on local resources); Environment – (reflecting the importance of caring for the environment, and broader environmental conditions and infrastructure); Education – (to advance skills and education); Empowerment – (which embraces economic, psychological, social and political empowerment); Equity – (for equitable distribution and re-distribution of both benefits and resources); Evolving – (always improving and changing to take advantage of dynamic opportunities); Enduring – (for long term sustainability) and supporting Entrepreneurship – (for innovation, creativity and viability). The framework/model is also significant as it provides a common ground upon which the understanding of CBT could be carried at international and national level. The model can be customised to take into account local conditions; it is flexible and all-encompassing with potential to be used for rating facilities.
Giampiccoli, A.; Jugmohan, S. and Mtapuri, O. 2015. Community-based tourism in rich and poor countries : towards a framework for comparison. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(4): 1200-1216.