Dietary quality and patterns and non-communicable disease risk of an Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Venter, Christine S.
MacIntyre, Una E.
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Background: Limited data exist on the South African Indian diet despite their high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This study attempted to determine the dietary quality and patterns of an Indian population in KwaZulu-Natal with reference to the high prevalence of non-communicable disease Methods: Two-hundred-and-fifty apparently healthy Indians, aged 35–55 years participated in a cross-sectional study where diet was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean intakes were compared to the World Health Organization goals. Dietary quality was determined by index construction and dietary patterns by factor analysis. Results: The mean daily percentage of energy (%E) from n-3 fatty acids (0.24 %E), dietary fibre (18.4 g/day) and fruit and vegetable intakes (229.4 g/day) were below the World Health Organization goals. Total fat (36.1 %E), polyunsaturated fatty acids (11.8 %E), n-6 fatty acids (11 %E) and free sugars (12.5 %E) exceeded the goals. The means for the deficient index reflected a moderate diet quality whereas, the excess index reflected good diet quality. The Pearson partial correlation coefficients between the deficient index and risk markers were weak whilst, the excess index was inversely correlated with waist circumference for the whole sample. Two factors were identified, based on the percentage of fat that contributed to each food group: factor 1 (meat and fish versus legume and cereal pattern), which accounted for added fat through food preparation; and Factor 2 (nuts and seeds versus sugars and visible fat pattern), which accounted for obvious fat. The medians for waist circumference, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed significant decreasing trends for factor 1 (p < 0.05). The medians for blood glucose and cholesterol showed significant decreasing trends for factor 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: A shortfall of fruit and vegetable, fibre and n-3 fatty acid intake in the diet is highlighted. When assessing the diet quality and patterns, guidance on the prudent use of added fats may lead to a healthier lifestyle reducing the prevalence of non-communicable diseases.
Naicker, A.; Venter, C.S.; MacIntyre, A.E. and Ellis, S 2015. Dietary quality and patterns and non-communicable disease risk of an Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 33(12): 1-9.