The immediate and short term effect of spinal manipulative therapy on the club head velocity of amateur golfers suffering from mechanical low back pain
Delgado, Robert Jose
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and short term effects of spinal manipulative therapy on the club head velocity of amateur golfers suffering from mechanical low back pain. This purpose was identified as low back pain which has been noted as the most common musculoskeletal problem affecting amateur and professional golfers. In the right handed golfer the golf swing produces a distinctly asymmetric trunk motion, involving a combination of left axial rotation and right lateral bending. The significant lateral bending, shear, compression and torsional forces that the lower back contends with during the golf swing causes a peak compression load of more than eight times the body weight. In addition it is found that at the end of the follow through phase the golfer's lumbar spine is rotated and hyperextended. This is known as the reversed C position, in which the facet joints approximate and in addition torsional stress is placed on the annular fibers of the disc. With repetitive swings and incorrect form the lumbar facets bear the brunt of the abnormal forces on the lumbar spine. IV In addition to this, during the downswing phase of a golf swing the role of the multifidus is to limit flexion whilst the external oblique muscle induces rotation of the lumbar spine. Together both muscles produce rotation in the lower lumbar spine. Thus the golf swing, particularly during the downswing phase, places a tremendous burden on the multifidus muscle and may cause; o muscle injury which will contribute to the golfer's low back pain and I or o joint injury as a result of muscle fatigue. Furthermore the resultant uncontrolled contractions of the multifidus muscle produces torsion to the facet joints and disc. It is therefore likely that facet syndrome may be the main cause of low back pain in golfers, as modern golf publications urge golfers to use a maximum state of spinal rotation to generate a high club head velocity.