Trends and novel strategies for enhancing lipid accumulation and quality in microalgae
Kumari, Sheena K.
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In order to realize the potential of microalgal biodiesel there is a need for substantial impetus involving interventions to radically improve lipid yields upstream. Nutrient stress and alteration to cultivation conditions are commonly used lipid enhancement strategies in microalgae. The main bottleneck of applying conventional strategies is their scalability as some of these strategies incur additional cost and energy. Novel lipid enhancement strategies have emerged to research forefront to overcome these challenges. In this review, the latest trends in microalgal lipid enhancement strategies, possible solutions and future directions are critically discussed. Advanced strategies such as combined nutrient and culti-vation condition stress, microalgae–bacteria interactions, use of phytohormones EDTA and chemical additives, improving light conditions using LED, dyes and paints, and gene expression analysis are described. Molecular approaches such as metabolic and genetic engineering are emerging as the potential lipid enhancing strategies. Recent advancements in gene expression studies, genetic and metabolic engineering have shown promising results in enhancing lipid productivity in microalgae; however environmental risk and long term viability are still major challenges.
Singh, P. et al. 2016. Trends and novel strategies for enhancing lipid accumulation and quality in microalgae. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 55: 1-16.