Synthesis of biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. by microwave and ultrasound assisted in situ transesterification using tungstated zirconia as a solid acid catalyst
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Copyright: 2014. Elsevier. Due to copyright restrictions, only the abstract is available. For access to the full text item, please consult the publisher's website. The definitive version of the work is published in Chemical Engineering Research and Design, August 2014, Vol. 92, Issue 8, pp. 1503-1511
Oleaginous Scenedesmus sp. was cultivated phototrophically in an open pond for biofuels production. The culture was harvested and subsequently dewatered and dried. The chemical properties of the Scenedesmus sp. lipids were determined as per standard ASTM methods. Biodiesel was synthesized by in situ transesteriﬁcation from dried biomass using microwave and sonication techniques with tungstated zirconia (WO3/ZrO2) as a solid acid catalyst. In situ transesteriﬁcation allowed minimizing the requirement of solvents by merging the two steps (i.e. extraction of lipid and conversion to biodiesel) to a single step. The use of a solid catalyst effectively reduces the puriﬁcation cost of biodiesel due to ease of separation and potential for reuse. The conversion of Scenedesmus sp. lipids to biodiesel was determined by GC. Box–Behnken design was used for optimization of the variables to optimize the biodiesel yield and conversion. The efﬁciency of the two processes was compared.
Guldhe, A., Singh, B., Rawat, I. and Bux, F. 2014. Synthesis of biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. by microwave and ultrasound assisted in situ transesterification using tungstated zirconia as a solid acid catalyst. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 92(8): 1503–1511.