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dc.contributor.advisorQwabe, L. Q.-
dc.contributor.advisorNtola, P.-
dc.contributor.authorMsimango, Maureen Nomaxhosaen_US
dc.descriptionSubmitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Applied Science in Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2023.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study explores the potential of utilizing inexpensive adsorbent materials derived from agricultural waste to eliminate Zn (II), Ni (II) and Cd (II) from water-based solutions. Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified to extract cellulose and further functionalize extracted cellulose to prepare carboxymethyl cellulose which were used as biosorbents. The biosorbents were characterized using XRD, FTIR (ATR), and SEM for confirmation of physical and chemical properties and surface morphology of the adsorbents. In batch experiments, the effect of various parameters such initial concentration (10-300 mg/L), pH (2- 8), adsorbent mass (0.1-1.7 g), and contact time (5-150 min). Adsorption was poor for all metals below pH 4 and reached maximum removal efficiency at pH 6. The increase in initial concentration favoured the increase in removal efficiency but reaches a maximum beyond 100 mg/L. The increase in biosorbent mass shows favours increase in removal efficiency for Ni (II) and Cd (II) but a decrease was observed for Zn(II). The removal efficiency increased with contact time and reached equilibrium at 60 minutes for all metals and biosorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities of Zn(II), on SCB, SCBC, and CMC were 12.3, 20.9 , and 33.5 mg/g respectively. Ni (II) adsorption capacities on SCB, SCBC, and CMC, were 41.9, 25.4, and 125.7 mg/g respectively. The maximum capacities of Cd(II) on SCB, SCBC, and CMC, were 11.3, 20.8, and 21.6 mg/g respectively. The performance of CMC superseded SCB and SCBC. Kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption process followed pseudo second order whereas the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isothermen_US
dc.format.extent83 pagesen_US
dc.subjectHeavy metalsen_US
dc.subjectAgricultural wasteen_US
dc.subject.lcshSewage--Purification--Heavy metals removalen_US
dc.subject.lcshAgricultural wastes--Recyclingen_US
dc.titleRemoval of selected heavy metals from wastewater using modified agricultural wasteen_US
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