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dc.contributor.authorDzwairo, Bloodless
dc.contributor.authorOtieno, Fredrick Alfred O.
dc.identifier.citationDzwairo, B. and Otieno, F.A.O. Integrating quality and cost of surface raw water: Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas South Africa. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 10, 2 (2010): 201-207.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe user-pays principle encourages use of a water tariff structure that incorporates pollution and/or depletion of a water resource because that water represents a capital resource base. Development of a tool that models variability of surface raw water quality in order to predict cost of treatment thus makes economic sense. This paper forms the backbone for an on-going doctoral study in South Africa's Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas (U&MVWMAs) of the Vaal River (VR). Specific objectives of the overall research are; to carry out pollutant tracer hydrochemistry of specific reaches of the U&MVWMAs including producing an integrated ecological functionality for the whole study area, and to develop a tool that models the variability of surface raw water quality using surface raw water tariffs and water quality data for years 2003–2008. This paper concluded that downstream water boards (WBs) paid a higher water resources management charge (WRMC) for more polluted raw water than upstream WBs. It was recommended that a quality-cost model be incorporated at tier1 of the cost chain for water services to ensure fairness of service delivery and spread of burden to consumers.en_US
dc.format.extent7 pen_US
dc.publisherIWA Publishingen_US
dc.subjectVaal Riveren_US
dc.subjectCost of treatmenten_US
dc.subjectPollutant traceren_US
dc.subjectQuality-cost modelen_US
dc.subjectRaw water qualityen_US
dc.subjectTariff structureen_US
dc.subject.lcshVaal River (South Africa)en_US
dc.subject.lcshWater qualityen_US
dc.titleIntegrating quality and cost of surface raw water : upper and middle Vaal water management areas South Africaen_US

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