Silver nanoparticles of Albizia adianthifolia : the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma cell line
Gengan, Robert Moonsamy
Chuturgoon, Anil A.
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Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), the most popular nano-compounds, possess unique properties. Albizia adianthifolia (AA) is a plant of the Fabaceae family that is rich in saponins. The biological properties of a novel AgNP, synthesized from an aqueous leaf extract of AA (AAAgNP), were investigated on A549 lung cells. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cellular oxidative status (lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) levels), ATP concentration, caspase-3/-7, -8 and −9 activities were determined. Apoptosis, mitochondrial (mt) membrane depolarization (flow cytometry) and DNA fragmentation (comet assay) were assessed. The expression of CD95 receptors, p53, bax, PARP-1 and smac/DIABLO was evaluated by flow cytometry and/or western blotting. Results Silver nanoparticles of AA caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (5-fold vs. control; p = 0.0098) and decreased intracellular GSH (p = 0.1184). A significant 2.5-fold decrease in cellular ATP was observed upon AAAgNP exposure (p = 0.0040) with a highly significant elevation in mt depolarization (3.3-fold vs. control; p < 0.0001). Apoptosis was also significantly higher (1.5-fold) in AAAgNP treated cells (p < 0.0001) with a significant decline in expression of CD95 receptors (p = 0.0416). Silver nanoparticles of AA caused a significant 2.5-fold reduction in caspase-8 activity (p = 0.0024) with contrasting increases in caspase-3/-7 (1.7-fold vs. control; p = 0.0180) and −9 activity (1.4-fold vs. control; p = 0.0117). Western blots showed increased expression of smac/DIABLO (4.1-fold) in treated cells (p = 0.0033). Furthermore, AAAgNP significantly increased the expression of p53, bax and PARP-1 (1.2-fold; p = 0.0498, 1.6-fold; p = 0.0083 and 1.1-fold; p = 0.0359 respectively). Conclusion Data suggests that AAAgNP induces cell death in the A549 lung cells via the mt mediated intrinsic apoptotic program. Further investigation is required to potentiate the use of this novel compound in cancer therapy trials.
Govender, R.; Phulukdaree, A.; Gengan, R.M.; Anand, K. and Chuturgoon, A.A. 2013. 'Silver nanoparticles of Albizia adianthifolia: the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma cell line' Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 11(5): 1-9.